Extraocular Muscles

Extraocular Muscles The stabilization of eye movement is accomplished by six extraocular muscles attached to the eye via the sclera. The six muscles and their function are: Lateral rectus - moves the eye outward, away from the nose Medial rectus - moves the eye...

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors occur when abnormalities of the eye prevent the proper focus of light on the retina. Emmetropia refers to an eye free of refractive errors. Common Refractive Errors Two common types of refractive errors are myopia and hyperopia. Myopia Myopia, also...

Common Eye Disorders

Amblyopia - a reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal. Also commonly known as lazy eye, amblyopia is an eye condition noted by reduced vision not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and is not due to any eye disease. The brain does not...

Major Ocular Structures

Major Ocular Structures The eye is made up of three layers: the outer layer called the fibrous tunic, which consists of the sclera and the cornea; the middle layer responsible for nourishment, called the vascular tunic, which consists of the iris, the choroid, and the...

Principles of Atoric Lens Design

Industry studies have shown that approximately 70% of all spectacle wearers receive a cylinder correction for astigmatism. Further, 50% of these wearers have corrections with over 0.50 D of cylinder power. This article will show that conventional lens design does not...

Fundamentals of Progressive Lenses

A progressive addition lens (PAL) is a type of multifocal lens that employs a surface with a continuously smooth increase in addition (Plus) power. The curvature of the surface increases from its minimum value in the distance zone to its maximum value in the near zone...

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