Amblyopia - a reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal. Also commonly known as lazy eye, amblyopia is an eye condition noted by reduced vision not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and is not due to any eye disease. The brain does not fully acknowledge the images received by the amblyopic eye. This almost always affects only one eye but may manifest with reduction of vision in both eyes.

Aphakia - Absence of the lens, due to surgical removal, perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly; causes a loss of accommodation, hyperopia, and a deep anterior chamber. Complications include detachment of the vitreous or retina, and glaucoma.

Astigmatism - Astigmatism is a focusing error that tends to distort vision at all distances. In astigmatism, some directions in an image are more out of focus than others; as opposed to myopia where all directions are uniformly blurred. Even slight degrees of astigmatism may encourage headaches, fatigue and reduce concentration. Most astigmatism is caused by the shape of the front surface of the eye (the cornea) or by slight tilting of the lens inside the eye. Most people have at least a very slight astigmatism.

Blepharitis - an inflammation of the edges of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands that open onto the surface.

Cataract - a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes dense or opaque and does not properly transmit light. Most often related to aging.

Chalazion - a small bump that develops on the upper or lower eyelid, caused by inflamed meibomian glands that produce the oil in tears.

Conjunctivitis - sometimes called pink eye, conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels in the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the sclera and inside of the eyelids. Conjunctivitis may be caused by bacteria or viruses, making it very contagious.

Diabetic Retinopathy - Over time, diabetes may cause changes in the small blood vessels that nourish the retina. In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, there may be blurring of both central and peripheral vision. In advanced stages, scar tissue forms, causing an additional distortion and blurred vision. Diabetic retinopathy can be treated by laser and other surgical procedures.

Dry Eye - occurs when there is not enough moisture in the eye, causing it to feel dry, hot, sandy, and gritty. Dry eye may be caused by low humidity, smoke, aging, certain diseases, and certain medications (i.e., antihistamines, decongestants).

Floaters - appear as spots, dots or lines and affect or interrupt vision and are usually caused by bits of debris in the vitreous humor.

Glaucoma - a disease that impairs vision when fluid and pressure build up in the eye causing damage the optic or retinal nerves. If diagnosed early, damage can often be limited. Glaucoma in its early stages has no symptoms and can only be detected by a professional eye exam.

Hyperopia - also known as far-sightedness. In a hyperopic eye, the light is focused behind the retina and so the image is blurred.

Iritis - an inflammation of the iris of the eye.

Macular Degeneration - the degeneration, or deterioration, of the macula area of the retina of the eye, resulting in blurring of vision and can lead to blindness.

Myopia � also known as near-sightedness. In a myopic eye, the light is focused in front of the retina and so the image is blurred.

Presbyopia - Presbyopia is a common condition which makes focusing difficult at a normal reading distance. With age, the lens of the eye loses its flexibility and is less able to change its shape and ability to focus. This is a completely normal aging change. Presbyopia is usually first noticed around the age of 40 to 45 years and increases between the ages of 45 and 65.

Retina Detachment - the separation of the retina from the back of the eye. Can be related to age or caused by a blow to the eye. Symptoms can include blurred vision, floaters, or flashing spots.

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